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Basa de Dunya

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Palatal Guttural
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ (/ŋ/)
Plosive p /pʰ/, b /b/ t /tʰ/, d /d/ c /t͡ʃʰ/, j /d͡ʒ/ k /kʰ/, g /ɡ/
Fricative f /f/ s /s/ sh /ʃ/ h /h~x/
Approximant w /ʋ~w/ l /l/ (w)
Trill r /r~ɻ~ɹ~ʁ/

Variation from the above-listed pronunciations is entirely acceptable so long as one can still understand the speaker: the above table is inclusive, not exhaustive.

It is recommended to pronounce w as [ʋ] (much as in Hindi–Urdu and Indian English) to aid in the recognisability of roots which originally had a /v/ sound or similar.

The nasal n /n/ assimilates to a velar [ŋ] in front of g and k.

The cluster ng /nɡ/ can and should be pronounced as [ŋ] (aiding in the recognisability of many Mandarin and English roots); nevertheless, it is still treated as a consonant cluster for purposes of syllable structure.

Vowels and diphthongs

Basa de Dunya has five base vowel sounds: a /ä/, e /e/, i /i/, o /o/, and u /u/. As with the consonants, variation in pronunciation is entirely acceptable, as long as they are all clearly distinct.

It also has four diphthongs: ai /äɪ̯/, au /äʊ̯/, ei /eɪ̯/, and oi /oɪ̯/. These diphthongs are treated as a vowel followed by a consonant for the purpose of determining which syllable structures are permitted.

Phonotactics

The syllable structure of Basa de Dunya was chosen as a compromise between ease of pronunciation and recognisability of roots. Valid Basa de Dunya syllables take the following form: