Compendium Appendix A
One loan word per language

Language English word Original word Original meaning Further etymology or notes

Indo-European

Germanic

West Germanic

Afrikaans trek trek A journey Dutch trek “journey, migration”
Dutch boss baas A boss Mid. Dutch baes “master”
Old English weird wyrd Fate, destiny Proto-Indo-European *wert- “to turn, to wind”
German schadenfreude Schadenfreude Enjoyment from another’s misfortune Schaden “harm” + Freude “joy”
Yiddish klutz קלאָץ‎ klots A wooden beam Proto–West Germanic *klott, whence English clod

Nordic

Danish angst angst Fear, dread, anxiety, angst Proto-Germanic *angustiz “narrowness, tightness, fear, anxiety”
Færoese skua skúgvur A great skua Old Norse skúfr “great skua”
Icelandic geyser Geysir Name of a large geyser in southwestern Iceland lit. “gusher”, from geysa “to gush”
Old Norse window vindauga A window vindr “wind” + auga “eye”
Norwegian ski ski A ski or skis Old Norse skíð “snowshoe, stick of wood”
Swedish moped moped A moped tramp-cykel med motor och pedaler “bicycle with engine and pedals”

Romance

Catalan paella paella A frying pan, a paella Latin patella “pan”
Old French air air Air, the atmosphere, a breeze, the weather Ancient Greek ᾱ̓ήρ āḗr air, mist, wind
French hotel hôtel A mansion, a hotel Latin hospitāle “hospital, guesthouse”
Italian balcony balcone A balcony augmentative of balco “scaffold, balcony”
Latin nature nātūra A nature, an essence, the natural world, a penis nāscor “be born”
Portuguese dodo doudo A crazy person dated form of doido
Spanish tornado tronada A thunderstorm tronar “to thunder”

Indo–Iranian

Hindustani pyjamas पाजामा پاجامہ‎ pājāmā Loose cotton trousers Persian پايجامه pâyjâma “leg garment”
Persian caravan کاروان kârvân A caravan, a convoy Middle Persian 𐭪𐭠𐭫𐭥𐭠𐭭𐭥 kārawān “military column”
Punjabi Sikh ਸਿੱਖ sikkha A Sikh, the Sikh community Sanskrit शिक्षा śikṣā “learning, study, skill”
Romani pal phral A brother Cognate with English brother, Latin frater, &c.
Sanskrit karma कर्मन् kárman An act, an action, a performance, karma

Slavic

Czech robot robot A robot robota “servitude, drudgery”
Polish sabre szabla A sabre via German Säbel, French sabre
Russian mammoth мамонт mamont A mammoth Compare Proto-Uralic *mëxeearth, land”
Serbo-Croatian vampire вампир vampir A vampire via German Vampir, French vampire
Ukrainian Cossack козак kozak A Cossack via Polish kozak, French cosaque

Hellenic

Ancient Greek iris ἶρις îris A rainbow via Latin īris
Modern Greek malarkey μαλακία malakía Masturbation, nonsense

Celtic

Irish Tory tóraí An outlaw, a pursuer Originally applied to Irish Catholic rebels, then to supporters of Catholic king James VII
Scottish Gaelic slogan sluagh-ghairm A battle cry sluagh “crowd, (obsolete) army” + ghairm “cry”
Welsh corgi corgi A corgi cor “dwarf” + ci “dog”

Sino-Tibetan

Cantonese kowtow 叩頭 kau3 tau4 To bow so deeply one’s forehead touches the ground “knock” + “head”
Mandarin kung-fu 功夫 gōngfu Skill, accomplishment “achievement” + “man”

Niger–Congo

Igbo okra ọ́kụ̀rụ̀ Okra Disputed
Swahili safari safari A journey, a trip Arabic سفر safar “departure, journey, military campaign”
Wolof banana banaana A banana Arabic بنانة banāna “fingertip, finger”
Zulu impala impala An impala Proto-Bantu *mpàdá “impala”

Afro-Asiatic

Arabic coffee قهوة qahwa Wine, coffee via Turkish kahve, Dutch koffie
Aramaic abbot אבא ʾabbā A father, an ancestor, a teacher, a leader, an author
Egyptian lily ḥaru:rat A flower, a blossom via Coptic ϩⲗⲏⲣⲓ hlēri, Ancient Greek λείριον leírion, Latin līlium
Hebrew hallelujah הללויה halleluyah Praise God! הללו “praise” + יה (personal name of God)

Austronesian

Malayo-Polynesian

Malayic

Malay orangutan orang utan An orangutan orang “person” + utan “forest”

Philippine

Ilocano yo-yo yóyo A yo-yo
Tagalog boondocks bundok A mountain

Oceanic

Hawaiʻian ukulele ʻukulele A ukulele ʻuku “flea” + lele “to jump”
Māori kiwi kiwi A kiwi bird Onomatopœic
Samoan tattoo tatau To fight; a tattoo ta “to strike, to tattoo” + tau “to fight, to strike”
Tongan taboo tapu Prohibited, sacred Also found in Māori, Rapa Nui, Samoan, and Tahitian

Vietic

Vietnamese pho phở Pho, a soup made with bánh phở served with beef, pork, or chicken

Dravidian

Malayalam mango മാങ്ങ māṅṅa An unripe mango fruit via Malay mangga, Portuguese manga
Tamil pariah பறையர் paṟaiyar Drummers; the Adi Dravida, a lower caste in southern Indian society பறை paṟai “drum”
Telugu bandicoot పందికొక్కు pandikokku A bandicoot పంది pandi “pig” + కొక్కు kokku “great rat, bandicoot”

Uralic

Finnish sauna sauna A sauna, (obsolete) a pit dug into snow for temporary shelter
Hungarian coach kocsi A cart, a carriage, a car via German Kutsche, French coche; after the cart-buildng town of Kocs
Kildin Sámi tundra тӯннтрэ tūnntre Of a mountain fell, of a fjeld Genitive of тӯнтар tūntar

Algic

Mi’kmaq caribou qalipu A caribou Proto-Algonquian *maka·lipowa “it shovels snow”
Ojibwe totem odoodem Their clan, their totem Singular their, that is
Powhatan raccoon arahkun A raccoon arahkuněm “he scratches with his hands”

Inuit–Yupik–Unangan

Greenlandic kayak qajaq A kayak via Danish kajak
Inuktitut igloo ᐃᒡᓗ iglu A house, a building Proto–Inuit–Yupik *ǝŋlu
Iñupiaq malamute malimiut The Malimiut people of north-western Alaska Known for breeding malamutes

Pama–Nyungan

Dharug koala gula A koala
Guugu Yimidhirr kangaroo gangurru An eastern grey kangaroo
Woiwurrung yabber yaba To speak, to talk

Other

Africa

Nama/Khoekhoe gnu !nu A gnu via Dutch gnoe

The Americas

Lakota teepee thípi A house, a building thípi “they live (somewhere)”
Nahuatl axolotl āxōlōtl An axolotl ātl “water” + xōlōtl “naked one”
Quechua jerky ch’arki Dried meat, jerky; thin, miserly, stingy via Spanish charqui
Taíno canoe *kanowa A dugout canoe Proto-Arawak *kanawa

Asia

Japanese futon 布団 futon A foldable mattress & duvet placed on the floor Mid. Chinese 蒲團 bu-dwan “meditation cushion”
Korean mukbang 먹방 meokbang An online livestream where one eats & interacts with an audience 먹다 meokda “eat” + 방송 bangsong “broadcast”
Turkish yoghurt yoğurt Yoghurt

Page created: 12020-12-16
Page last updated: 12021-03-12